Triassic Earth 200mya

The Earth in the Triassic Period, 200 million years ago, showing the location of the continents that made up Gondwana.

Gondwana (originally Gondwanaland) was one of two supercontinents that formed Pangaea during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic periods. It contained the modern continents of Africa, South America, Australia, and Antarctica, as well as Madagascar, India, and parts of Arabia. After the breakup of Pangaea it was one of the world's main continents, along with Laurasia.[1]


Gondwana was originally composed of many other continents and supercontinents that existed during the Precambrian and Early Paleozoic.[2]

After the supercontinent Pangaea broke up during the Mesozoic period, parts of the original Gondwana were still attached to the continent now called Laurasia. This includes Florida and parts of Georgia.[3]


Gondwana fragmented throughout the Jurassic period and into the Cretaceous. A notable example is Madagascar, which broke off from the rest of the supercontinent and later evolved a fauna unique to the island.[4]


  1. Houseman, Greg. "Dispersal of Gondwanaland". University of Leeds. Retrieved 21 Oct 2008.
  2. Grantham, G.H.; Maboko, M.; Eglington, B.M. (2003). "A review of the evolution of the Mozambique Belt and implications for the amalgamation and dispersal of Rodinia and Gondwana". Proterozoic East Gondwana: supercontinent assembly and breakup. Geological Society. pp. 417–418. ISBN 1-86239-125-4.
  3. "Gondwana Remnants In Alabama And Georgia: Uchee Is An 'Exotic' Peri-Gondwanan Arc Terrane, Not Part Of Laurentia". ScienceDaily. February 4 2008. Retrieved October 2011.
  4. Weishampel, David B.; Barrett, Paul M.; Coria, Rodolfo A.; Le Loueff, Jean; Xu Xing; Zhao Xijin; Sahni, Ashok; Gomani, Elizabeth M.P.; and Noto, Christopher N. (2004). "Dinosaur distribution". In Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.). The Dinosauria (2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 604. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.